Cách dùng tiếng Anh trong bài báo khoa học (phần 3- Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review)

Tiếng Anh học thuật là một vấn đề tương đối đau đầu đối với những người làm nghiên cứu khoa học. Họ không những phải có tư duy logic để nâng cao kiến thức chuyên môn, dành trọn tâm huyết để nghiên cứu khoa học mà còn phải viết tốt tiếng Anh, đưa kết quả nghiên cứu của mình công bố trước giới học thuật quốc tế.

học viết tiếng anh học thuật english writing

Trong các phần trước, chuyên trang Kỹ thuật vật liệu đã giới thiệu cách dùng tiếng Anh trong bài báo khoa học như các cụm từ thay thế và mẫu câu thường dùng.

Trong phần này, chúng tôi tiếp tục giới thiệu tới các bạn các mẫu câu tiếng Anh ở phần Abstract, Introduction và Literature Review.

Phần 3 – Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review

Chapter 0. Abstract

  1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.
  2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.
  3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.
  4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.
  5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.
  6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithms.
  7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.
  8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.
  9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.
  10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.
  11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.
  12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.
  13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.
  14. This paper analyses problems in
  15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by …
  16. This paper includes an illustration of the …
  17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching
  18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.
  19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx
  20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.
  21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of : xx,xx
  22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.
  23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure.

Chapter 1. Introduction


Time

  1. Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive
  2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world
  3. The advent of … systems for has had a significant impact on the
  4. The development of … is explored
  5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions,
  6. The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years
  7. There has been a turning point in … methodology in accordance with the advent of …
  8. A major concern in … today is to continue to improve…
  9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.
  10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.
  11. The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].
  12. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.

Objective / Goal / Purpose

  1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:
  2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.
  3. The paper concerns the development of a xx
  4. The scope of this research lies in
  5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.
  6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit …
  7. The objectives of the … operations study are as follows:
  8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of
  9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide
  10. The main objective of such a … system is to
  11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.
  12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:
  13. In order to take advantage of their similarity
  14. more research is still required before final goal of … can be completed
  15. In this trial, the objective is to generate…
  16. for the sake of concentrating on … research issues
  17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.
  18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.
  19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods
  20. This illustration points out the need to specify
  21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.


Chapter 2. Literature Review

  1. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx
  2. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade
  3. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.
  4. There is considerable amount of literature on planning
  5. However, these studies do not provide much attention to undertainty in xx.
  6. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.
  7. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.
  8. Problem of xx draw recently more and more attention of system analysis.
  9. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of
  10. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.
  11. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.
  12. The central issue in all these studies is to
  13. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.
  14. Applied … techniques to
  15. Characterized the … system as
  16. Developed an algorithm to
  17. Developed a system called … which
  18. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce
  19. Emphasized the need to
  20. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology
  21. A comprehensive study of the .. has been undertaken
  22. Much work has been reported recently in these filed
  23. Proposed
  24. Presented
  25. State that
  26. Point out that the problem of
  27. Described
  28. Illustrated
  29. Indicated
  30. Has shown / showed
  31. Address
  32. Highlights
  33. A study on …was done / developed by []
  34. Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with
  35. The approach taken by [] is
  36. The system developed by [] consists
  37. A paper relevant to this research was published by []
  38. []s model requires consideration of ..
  39. [] model draws attention to evolution in human development
  40. []s model focuses on…
  41. Little research has been conducted in applying … to
  42. The published information that is relevant to this research…
  43. This study further shows that
  44. Their work is based on the principle of
  45. More history of … can be found in xx et al. [1979].
  46. Studies have been completed to established
  47. The …studies indicated that
  48. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.

Problem / Issue / Question

  1. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.
  2. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems
  3. … is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved
  4. Two major problems have yet to be addressed
  5. An unanswered question
  6. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.
  7. An additional research issue to be tackled is ….
  8. Some important issues in developing a … system are discussed
  9. The three prime issues can be summarized:
  10. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the …
  11. There have been many attempts to
  12. It is expected to be serious barrier to
  13. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex problem.
  14. There are several ways to get around this problem.
  15. As difficult as it seems to be, xx is by no means new.
  16. The problem is to recognize xx from a design representation.
  17. A xx problem can trace its roots to xx.
  18. xx [1987] used a heuristic approach to simplify the complexity of the problem.
  19. Several problems are associated with them.
  20. Although some progress has been made in this area, at least two major obstacles must be overcome before a fully automated system can be realized.
  21. Most problems in practice are complicated
  22. More problem surface here.
  23. Hamper effort toward a xx system
  24. In order to overcome the limitations due to incomplete and imprecise xx knowledge, a xx program has been developed, which bases its knowledge upon the statistical analysis of a sample population of xx
  25. The above difficulties are real challenges faced by researchers attempting to develop
  26. This type of mapping raises no controversy to the issue of membership function determination.
  27. However, attempts to quantify the xx have met both theoretical and empirical problems.
  28. It has become apparent that in order to apply this new methodological framework to real world problems and data, we have to pay attention to the problems of xx and xx.

Trên đây là những mẫu câu ở phần Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review; trong bài đăng khác chúng ta sẽ tìm hiểu những mẫu câu ở các phần còn lại (Proposed Methodology, Examples, Results).



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