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Trong loạt bài đăng trước, chuyên trang Kỹ thuật vật liệu đã giới thiệu tới các bạn cách dùng tiếng Anh khi viết bài báo nghiên cứu.
Sau đây, chúng tôi sẽ giới thiệu tới các bạn các mẫu câu ở phần Proposed methodology, Examples, Results.
Phần 3 – Proposed Methodology, Examples, Results
Chapter 3. Proposed Methodology
- In the case when the assumption of a xx seems to be too restrictive or inadequate, the formulation with Fuzzy termination time, i.e. given by a fuzzy set in the space of control stages, may be applied.
- We assume here the fuzzy constraints to be state dependent, and the fuzzy goal to be the same for all the control states, xx, which stems from the problems nature.
- An approach to the solution of this problem is presented under the assumption that the sampling rate Decision can be made prior to the execution of the experiment, as opposed to being made while the experiment is in progress.
- Another assumption made above is that there are precise odds at which the expert is indifferent.
- Main simplifying assumptions are:
- This, in our view, is a questionable assumption.
Outline / Structure / Module
- An outline of the research
- Information is incorporated within the scheme
- Is built into … structure
- A nice modular structure.
- The principles of … are applied as modularized criteria
- A xx system comprises three main components:
- Must decompose the original .. into a set of ..
- Consists of the following steps:
- This is summarized in the following steps:
- Can be broadly classified into the following areas:
- Can be characterized by its function of effectively processing the
- Can allow further breadth of application of …into more
- The following steps should be followed
- xx can be classified by a different ways.
- Based on the xx, one may classify xx into the following:
- This catalog may change due to wear, breakage, and purchasing.
- Unlike many conventional program, expert systems do not usually deal with problem for which there is clearly a right or wrong answer.
- The system consists of both … and …
- The system has a hierarchical modular architecture organized on three levels.
- expert system domains are area of expertise
- To develop a xx system for xx, the following factors must be considered:
- The system has been developed / designed to determine
- The system has proven to be able to
- The domain in which an expert system operates is a particular domain
- The system comprises a … with
- The system is [feature-oriented ] / based on the … technique
- The system environment must be relatively stable
- The system is utilized to generate, load, store, update and retrieve …
- The development of a xx system has two stages: xx stage and xx stage.
- The most essential part of .. system is the …
- The successful developments in ESs have made them an important tool in the development of
- An automated system was developed for
- In this case, the system can be considered to be generative.
- An interactive automatic … system
- A .. is commonly thought of as a truly integrated .. system
- Should be capable of being generated from a … system
- xx is an important part of the integrated system.
- The model consists of four rule bases, each of which addresses a separate problem in the hierarchy of scheduling decision.
- The rule bases are linked to each other in a chin like manner in the sense that the consequent of one rule base constitutes a part of the antecedent of the next rule base.
- The rule base consists of all possible combinations of the linguistic terms associated with the linguistic variable of the antecedent of a rule.
- The system has been implemented using Prolog language in an MS DOS environment. Prolog was chosen because it offers a well known and flexible environment in which fuzzy reasoning may be easily implemented.
- The current version of the xx program when compiled with WATFOR77 result s in an executable code of about 270K bytes. Typical run time, when run on a XX computer (an IBM compatible machine) operating at 4.77 Mhz with 640K RAM, ranges from 10 min to 2h, depending on the size (or complexity) of the problem.
- Time consuming procedures have been implemented in C language and directly linked to the Prolog environment.
- The xx process, once the xxs data has been entered, requires approximately 180 seconds.
- It should be noted that the computation was done with a 20 Hhz, 80386 209;based microcomputer equipped with a 80387 math co processor.
- The computer programs used for the analyses, one based on the xx method and the other based on the new method, were written in FORTRAN with a compiler that supports the math co processor.
- Lisp, Prolog give maximum flexibility but also maximizes development time.
- Internal representation is the way a model is represented in the computer.
- An interactive menu-driven procedure is used in this study
- Shell can be develop very fast at the cost of time fairly severe limitations.
- While there is no measurable saving of time for the case involving five criteria, the saving is dramatic for the case involving 10 criteria — the computation time reduces from 10 hr 40 min to about 1 min.
- This combination is being implemented in an objected oriented programming environment (Smalltalk 80 system) to solve problems encountered in construction xxx.
Method / Approach / Study / Process Model / Equation /Algorithm / Rule / Formula / Technique
- A discussion is presented of a problem-solving system
- To improve the efficiency of the method, the following approach may be applied.
- In order to an investigation was made to find the causes of the
- Although large collections of rules and equations have been complied, none are generally accepted
- This approach will be explained and discussed thoroughly in the body of the report.
- This can be accomplished by
- This algorithm to compute the total cost can be described step by step as follows:
- The above preliminary analysis has provided important information
- Various methods have been proposed for selecting an optimum…
- These concepts have been applied to
- On the basis of the concept mentioned above,
- This can be achieved by
- This fact suggests that a new concept
- This was accomplished by taking …
- The preparatory stage is very time consuming process.
- Test are performed for validity, completeness, and compatibility
- There is little hope of achieving successful …
- There has been an increasing awareness of the potential of using most ..so far made have not taken this approach, with the exception of
- Only a few studies can be found.
- It is a very tedious process to go through
- It is only when .. has been completed that .. may be effected
- The entire interpretation process is conducted in ones head.
- These approaches are sometimes very tedious.
- Several techniques can be used
- A polynomial parametric model can be written as [the following]/[follows]:
- A xx model is constructed/formulated using xx.
- A xx model represents an xx by its xx.
- A process decision model captures the logic essential to
- From the equation above, xx is equal to the summation of xx times the …
- The validity of a xx model can be checked using Eulers formula.
- Given a model, one can mathematically determine whether … or …
- Equations for xx need to be derived and implemented in the system.
- A number of heuristic rules have been developed for
- Optimum .. techniques can be made more reliable by … so that
- An algorithm based on the characteristic … is used to determine
- Eulers formula states the following:
- The completed model should agree with the formula.
- For manufacturing purposes, a detailed and precise model of the object is necessary
- Engineering design models are very well defined; therefore,
- To keep the domain narrow enough to be implementable, yet wide enough to be useful.
Point of View
- from an implementation standpoint,
- From the point of view of this application,
- From this point of view, Zadeh suggested an inference rule named xxx (CRI for short).
- Information is the meaningful interpretation and correlation of some aggregation of data in order to allow one to make decisions.
- From a practical point of view, the computational aspects of an FLC require a simplification of the fuzzy control algorithm.
- The use of a hammer to insert screws, although partly effective, tends to distort, destroy, and generally defeat the purpose of using a screw [Kusiak AI Implications for CIM p.129]
- We choose the so called xx in our experiment because it has received wide acceptance and can
- Prolog was chosen because it offers a well known and flexible environment in which fuzzy reasoning may be easily implemented.
- The rationale behind this is that it can be much easier for an estimator to rate a cost as high than to attempt to place a dollar value on the estimate.
- This strategy has been widely used in fuzzy control applications since it is natural and easy to implement.
- A function definition expresses the membership function of a fuzzy set in a functional form, typically a bell shaped function, etc. Such functions are used in FLC because they lead themselves to manipulation through the use of fuzzy arithmetic.
- It should be noted that in our daily life most of the information on which our decisions are based is linguistic rather than numerical in nature. Seen in this perspective, fuzzy control rules provide a natural framework for the characterization of human behavior and decisions analysis.
- Many experts have found that fuzzy control rules provide a convenient way to express their domain knowledge. This explains why most FLCs are based on the knowledge and experience which are expressed in the language of fuzzy “if the” rule.
Chapter 4. Examples
- The data used in the following example was taken from an experiment in which xx was measured between x and x using a xx technique.
- The data consists of over xx measurements.
- An example of xx is discussed and the control rules of xx are compared with a xx
- Examples of complex processes to which this technique may be applied are xx, xx, etc.
- The following example is constructed only for the purpose of illustrating the computational procedure discussed.
- This example clearly demonstrates that the profile of an individual xx, or a very small group of xx, with no enough data to be studied statistically, can be meaningfully analyzed by fuzzy possibilistic methods.
- There is no space here to go into detail on all these methods, but deserve a mention and the bibliography will point to detailed references for those wishing this level of detail.
- Note that the golf ball spotting example is used throughout the paper.
- As well, the pros and cons of these representations from a process planning point of view will be discussed.
- The method of using xx to implement xx described by Zadeh (1973) appeared more suitable
- As discussed [in the previous section]/[preciously],
- We can not invert F directly because it defines a many-to-one mapping.
- The relationships appear very complicate
- Lifting tasks involve complex and imprecise relationship between the task variables and the human operators characteristics.
- These methods are based on the relationship between … and …
- The fundamental concept of a fuzzy rating language is that we can establish a relationship among terms such as high, medium, and low, and then modify these relationships.
- This article will thus mention the latter as well as the former.
- The former two bear a close relation to a fuzzy Cartesian product.
- The emphasis is on an implementation of a general approach to rule based decision making.
Consideration / Attention
- Careful evaluation is necessary to ensure
- Such a formulation does not change further considerations.
- Considerable attention has been paid to
- Attention should be paid to an important finding of this investigation.
- Caution should be exercised in this process to avoid …
- Primary consideration is given to … components, though others can be accommodated
- After … has been defined by …, a carefully analysis is carried out/performed to determine
- A number of factors such as …need to be taken into consideration before making the appropriate decision.
- It should be noted that
- It is important to point out that …
- These considerations have heightened interest in the possibility of providing …
- We should stress the fundamental importance of the xx
Chapter 5. Results
Advantages / Disadvantage
- One of the major advantages of this new measure of xx is that it can be applied to the experimental study of
- One advantage of using a .. is the ease of preparing it.
- The xx system is versatile
- It has a very fast decision making process
- All the algorithms involve mostly logical operations.
- It can be easily and without additional cost implemented in a microprocessor based environment.
- It can reduce the waste of designing from scratch.
- The advantages of using a xx to represent xx are the following:
- However, xx is not without its shortcomings.
- In most cases, the xxx shows an improvement over the existing xxx.
- Compared to the existing xx, the impacts of the xx are generally reduced by 5% to 9%.
- The “best case” results shows a savings of 6% to 9%.
- Most of the existing works based on xx approach can only recognize a xx .
- Most of the above methods are computational expansive and limited to xx.
- Some other advantages of xx are the following:
- The problem is the limitation of this method to a limited domain of parts.
- It proved limited in application because it demanded precision in system modeling that was impossible in practice.
- There are advantages to be gained in the structuring of costs and benefits, the use of xx,
- The disadvantages of this method are also disadvantages of conventional xx approaches.
- This combines the best features of both techniques
- Hopefully, this tool can be as the reference framework of for developing a xx platform, and helping the administration, marketing, and knowledge management activities in virtual communities.
- An improvement on the result shown above can be made by based on the data provided
- Discussion of these theories is beyond the scope of this review
- Based on the information contained in this
- The result can be categorized into nine classes
- The results are illustrated by an example
- The experimental results for each xx time are reported in Table 2.
- From the results obtained so far, it seem that
- Because of the inaccuracy of the …, a conclusion cannot be drawn as
- Although much effort has been made to., this reality is far from completion.
- The results indicate that the total benefits are higher than the total costs.
- Their results may then serve as guidelines for lower level models, less fuzzy and more detailed.
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Chuyên mục:Kiến thức